The researchers also concluded that when a strong anxiety response is required for specific experiments, the cage tunnel and "cupped" on open methods are not recommended. The handler wore a laboratory coat that was contaminated with mouse scent from previous handling sessions and clean close fit nitrile gloves that were rubbed in soiled bedding (from animals of same sex and strain) prior to the start of each handling session and whenever handling mice of the opposite sex. Researchers also permitted head movement between their hands. These factors set mice apart from humans in the extrapolation of biomedical data. Handling and Restraint Mice are generally easy to restrain, but their small size makes them especially vulnerable to physical injury, not least by the handler inadvertently dropping them when bitten. Temperature regulation specifically affects autonomic and behavioral effectors, including pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs and other chemicals. The responses were comparable in the light and dark phases of the diurnal cycle and were not dependent on the experience of the handler. for handling animals dosed with these hazardous materials. Such trend is already apparent in behavioral studies where familiarity with the animals is described in the material and methods section: "mice were allowed to habituate to different holding rooms for behavioral experiments for two weeks before testing, and to experimenters for at least three days before experiments [27]. Reducing mouse anxiety during handling: effect of experience with handling tunnels. These were defined in the following manner: 1) The gently handled mice were individually removed from their home cages, placed in the palm of the experimenter's hand, and stroked on the left and right flanks and head for 90 seconds. Instead, handling mice using a tunnel or cupped hands is advocated. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. These studies indicate that animal experiments could be altered and that it is important to refine laboratory procedures and practices in order to ensure high standards of animal welfare and scientific data quality. Handling mice is an unavoidable part of an animal caretaker’s routine, and the stress this causes to laboratory mice is an often overlooked factor that may affect experimental outcomes. With inclusions of the newly revised European standards on laboratory animals, this will be the most current, global authority on the care of mice in laboratory research. Davis H, Taylor AA, Norris C. Preference for familiar humans by rats. The FST is used to measure depressive behaviors in rodents [24]. J Vis Exp. The first method the authors described involves a cage tunnel that is normally present in all cages. For this reason, animal handlers oversee the anxious response in mice that could affect the result of the experiments because these responses are often evaluated as normal. Understanding proper laboratory behavior while handling mice. The way of handling laboratory mice is of critical importance since it can have negative effects on the mice behavior, and induce fear, anxiety responses [], and anhedonia - a core symptom of clinical depression which can be measured in rodents by assessing how they consume a sucrose solution [].These studies indicate that animal experiments could be altered … If you are interested in contributing a manuscript or suggesting a topic, please leave us. All laboratories should perform a site-specific and activity-specific risk assessment to identify and mitigate risks. Risk assessments and mitigation measures are dependent on: 1. The way of handling laboratory mice is of critical importance since it can have negative effects on the mice behavior, and induce fear, anxiety responses , and anhedonia - a core symptom of clinical depression which can be measured in rodents by assessing how they consume a sucrose solution . Mice and Rats: Housing Temperature and Handling, Synatom Research, Princeton, New Jersey, United States, last modified : 2020-10-17; original version : 2011-01-01, Handling effects on depressive-like behavior, Neely C, Lane C, Torres J, Flinn J. Pregnant mice, mice giving birth, wild-derived strains and mice with new litters should be handled as little as possible. Laboratory mice respond best to calm and consistent handling. These studies indicate that animal experiments could be altered and that it is important to … Traditionally mice are initially picked up by the base of the tail, sometimes with a hand positioned to support the animal’s body. Experimenter sex can, therefore, affect apparent baseline responses in behavioral testing. Nature Meth. Apply to Animator, Senior Research Assistant, Supervisor and more! This immobile behavior is thought to indicates a state of despair in which the rat has learned that escape is impossible and resigns itself to the experimental conditions. The first (1880–1950) was when mice and rats became common research animals. SeqFold is a tool for RNA secondary structure prediction from experimental data. In a study that investigated the effect of identity of the experimenter and familiarity to their test animals on the results obtained from a standard test of anxiety, the authors found that having different experimenters perform the same test (i.e. Understanding proper laboratory behavior while handling mice. For example, if blood will be drawn from or something will be injected into the mice, simulate those procedures as part of the habituation routine. In studies that examined the effects of different handling techniques on depressive-like behavior, the benefits of gentle handling were established. Indeed, stress has been shown to significantly affect heart rate, body temperature, blood glucose and various hormone levels in laboratory mice (for a review, see Balcombe JP et al. The 18-minute tutorial covers: The impact of handling on anxiety and stress in mice Handling techniques to improve welfare and reliability of mouse studies Best However, recent research has shown that this type of handling increases anxiety and aversive behaviour. Available from: van Driel K, Talling J. Adult mice are picked up by the tail base by compressing the base of the tail between the thumb and forefinger and gently placing the animal onto a solid surface. In a study where the responses of the three handling methods in male and female mice in different strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6 and ICR (CD-1)) were assessed, different anxiety and stress responses were observed. Mol Metab. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. Normally laboratory mice have to be ‘involved’ by means of professional handling/restraint in order to perform all procedures necessary during husbandry and/or experimentation. Common laboratory mouse strains are known to differ in their susceptibility to anxiety and neophobic responses. They also noticed the same response in mice after being restrained by the scruff of the neck. If the handler first picked up the mice and placed them on the hand by the tunnel or cupping method, the anxiety and stress behavior was reduced during tail handling to examine for instance ventral surface and anogenital area of mice (abdominal inspection). A Muller et al listed several practices such as conducting no experiments on the day of cage change, injection and measurement habituation [16]. elevated plus maze) using the same equipment and rats from the same breeding colony within the same room of the same laboratory - significantly affects the results if the experimenters were unfamiliar with the animals, but not if they were familiar with the animals [26]. Moreover, restraining the tunnel- and cupping-handled mice by neck skin “scruffing” did not alter their willingness to interact with the handler. Handling mice is an unavoidable part of an animal caretaker’s routine, and the stress this causes to laboratory mice is an often overlooked factor that may affect experimental outcomes. 2013;8:e66401, Clarkson J, Dwyer D, Flecknell P, Leach M, Rowe C. Handling method alters the hedonic value of reward in laboratory mice. The resources available Follow Standard Precautions when handling clinical specimens, all of which may co… Prog Neurobiol. Diabetes 33: 616-18 [PMID: 6376217]). For example, one of the most common inbred strains C57BL/6 shows greater anxiety when compared with the commonly used outbred ICR (CD-1) strain,. Minimize handling: Handle mice gently and as little as possible, especially when females are pregnant, close to delivering, or have new litters. Picking up mice by the tail can compromise their welfare and affect scientific outcomes. An adult rat is more than 10 times larger than a mouse. Handling and Restraint of Mice. OSVPR Phone: 814-863-9580. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2) The aggressively handled mice were individually removed from their home cages, grasped at the proximal end of their tails, and suspended in the air approximately 15 cm from the surface of a biosafety cabinet for 90 seconds. Interestingly, male handlers' stimuli induced a robust physiological stress response that resulted in stress-induced analgesia. The 55-year-old man received a bite on his middle finger. His lab members routinely clutch mice by the tail, even though they investigate the effect of stress on anxiety, depression and addiction. Faraco G, Hochrainer K, Segarra S, Schaeffer S, Santisteban M, Menon A, Kalovyrna N, Apokotou O, Boulekou S, Paouri E, Boutou A, Georgopoulos S. A 3'UTR modification of the TNF-α mouse gene increases peripheral TNF-α and modulates the Alzheimer-like phenotype in 5XFAD mice. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. Minimize odors: Perfumes and other strong odors can reduce breeding performance and induce stress. Gloves are also a must when handling mice both in the vivarium and in the lab. Rest the animal on one’s forearm to transport it short distances. The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice . Nevertheless, this interesting study emphasizes that habituation can minimize handling stress in mice and that mice should be handled as consistently as possible to minimize stress and its effects on experimental variability. When considering the temperature-dependence of all biochemical reactions, any significant difference in body temperature is anticipated to impact drug and chemical efficacy and metabolism directly. Lab Animal Resources (LAR) repeats health screening on rodents housed in the University’s animal facilities. (If you have the required subscription, check out the supporting online movies at the Nature Methods website.) 2018;592:2098-2107, Makowska I, Franks B, El Hinn C, Jorgensen T, Weary D. Standard laboratory housing for mice restricts their ability to segregate space into clean and dirty areas. Longer periods may be even more beneficial. 8th edition. Directory of Research Offices. Normally urination and defecation are used as a parameter to measure anxiety or stress in mice. In conclusion, studies demonstrate the benefits of gentle handling of mice that undergo depression-based testing and indicate that a gentle handling technique is effective when interacting with mice prior to and during behavioral testing. Behav Brain Res. Cell Metab. Using methods that minimize anxiety also reduces confounding factors, improves the responses during experiments, and lead to more robust scientific outcomes. Through this simple handling specificity, the mice could be transferred to another cage or a balance, and be examined for instance for sex determination, or lifted directly onto the cage wire lid for close examination with less anxiety. 411 Mice Handling jobs available on Indeed.com. Report a Research Concern. In a paper published late last year in Nature Methods, Jane Hurst and Rebecca West at the University of Liverpool report that how mice are handled can affect their fear and anxiety responses (Hurst JL, West RS. This course offers an introduction to working with mice in research settings including the regulatory mandates and biological features of mice. In Another study, gentle handling reduced the swimming immobility in the FST compared to mice that were aggressively or minimally handled, and suggest that gentle handling can reduce the stress and despair in the animals [21]. The administration of test substances, such as chemical ele-ments, compounds, drugs, antibodies, cells or other agents, to mice is one of the major methods for evalu-ating their biological activity. The instructor-led Mouse Handling course is available upon request. Enforced stress also decreases plasma insulin and increases plasma glucose levels in genetically obese C57BL/6- ob/ob mice (B6.V-Lepob/J – Stock # 000632; see Surwit RS et al. In a study that evaluated this factor in laboratory mice, the authors reported that the laboratory rats consistently chose a familiar human over an unfamiliar human following fourteen and five 10-min exposures and even following a single 10-min exposure. Some mice are also very active and may attempt to jump away from the handler. Bites from rats are uncommon and will typically only occur if the animal is stressed or in pain. Course objectives include: Identifying proper handling techniques for the mouse. Gloves are also a must when handling mice both in the vivarium and in the lab. 1977;266:730-2. The laboratory equipment and facility 5. However, despite clear negative effects on mice's behaviour, tunnel … Handling and Restraint of Small Laboratory Animals ... Mice. We found that picking up mice by the tail induced aversion and high anxiety, whereas use of tunnels or open hand led to voluntary approach, low anxi … Laboratory mice are routinely handled for husbandry and scientific procedures. Researchers have also tried to control the stress variation through other means. The authors found that rats responded well to both restraint and passive exposure treatments, and responded best to daily tickling. The Laboratory Mouse, Second Edition is a comprehensive book written by international experts. The competency level of the personnel who perform the procedures 4. These observations also point to the need to standardize the handling procedures in order to reduce the depressive symptoms in mice. 2010;7:825-6, Gouveia K, Hurst J. This review aims to introduce examples of animal handlings that are often overlooked, and increase the awareness in establishing consistent handling methods, especially in behavioral studies. For example, some strains breed better when fed a diet containing The researchers assessed the responses of the three handling methods using both male and female mice since they can have different responses in anxiety and stress. Thus far, animal handlers were unaware that the standard procedure of handling mice could affect the results of their experiments, and that picking up the mice from the tail-tip, for example, could generate anxiety and stress in the mice. Used to deliver personalized information and tailor communications. Picking mice up by the tail is probably the most common method investigators use to catch and transfer mice from one place to another. This method works well when the handler brings the tunnel towards the animal without direct contact. In this video, we will first review the basic techniques for handling rodents, and then we'll discuss the rodent restraint procedures including manual techniques and methods involving usage of … This analgesic effect could be replicated with T-shirts worn by men, bedding material from gonadally intact, and unfamiliar male mammals, and presentation of compounds secreted from the human axilla. Muller P, Schneeberger M, Matheis F, Wang P, Kerner Z, Ilanges A. Cloutier S, Panksepp J, Newberry RC. Results showed that the tail approach yielded the lowest voluntary interaction with the handler and induced more urination and defecation during the handling process. When these mice were tested for depressive-like behavior by the FST, the results demonstrated a significant beneficial effect on gentle handling (Figure 1). Familiarity increases consistency in animal tests. Basic Mouse Handling and Rat Handling includes: Use of personal protective equipment, handling and restraint of rodents, giving injections, collecting blood, euthanasia techniques, plus any specific procedures needed for your laboratory protocol. Mice in general are maintained on 12 h light:dark cycles, for example, lights on from 6 am to 6pm [4] or 7 am to 7 pm [5]. Allergens: Laboratory animal allergies and associated asthma are among the most common conditions affecting individuals who work with laboratory animals. Researchers should always follow institutional guidelines for example, the US National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (8th edition) or ARRIVE [2] or European Communities Council Directive (86/609/EEC) [3], in conducting experiments with animals, and seek approval from local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, especially in cases where care and handling of animals deviate from standard practices. — or to the mouse. Mice that aren’t used to being handled are easily stressed, which … It is based on research by Professor Jane Hurst and colleagues at the University of Liverpool. The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. Analgesia is the phenomenon of pain suppression upon exposure to unconditioned or conditioned stressful stimuli, also known as stress-induced analgesia [30]. With inclusions of the newly revised European standards on laboratory animals, this will be the most current, global authority on the care of mice in laboratory research. Furthermore, there is evidence that familiarity with the animal handlers increases reproducibility in animal tests. 1984. Postbacc, Ph.D., and Postdoctoral Programs, heart rate, body temperature, blood glucose and various hormone levels, decreases plasma insulin and increases plasma glucose levels, Revealing treatment options with category variants, JAX Diversity Outbred Mice: A Genetically Diverse Mouse for a Diverse Human Population, How to address secondary findings from genomic testing, Updates in BRCA testing for People of Ashkenazi Jewish Ancestry, Workshop on Surgical Techniques in the Laboratory Mouse, Making and Genetically Manipulating Mouse Embryos. Nature. 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